Detailed description of the most common and used architectural terms. The dictionary contains everything you need to help easily navigate the extensive information and specific names of the individual components in interior and facade design.

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(Derived from the Greek word 'abax', meaning 'plate'), this architectural term is used to refer to the protruding thick and flat plates, usually located at the top of a capital (column end). The main function of the abacus is to ensure the stability and wide support of the elements above it - usually arches or architraves. Depending on the style of architecture, the shape and type of abacus can vary. Classical architecture knows details in Egyptian, Dorian, Greek-Dorian, Greek-Ionian, Romano-Tuscan, Romano-Durian and other styles.
(Derived from Latin, from the words aqua and duco, meaning 'water' and 'plumbing') is an artificial canal built with the main purpose of ensuring the transfer of water between two different points. The need to build aqueducts is usually dictated by difficult or uneven terrain such as valleys, lowlands, rocky areas and more.
(from French: entablement) is a node, for a number of architectural styles, an element located in the area between the roof and the colonnade. The entablature consists of three main parts - cornice, frieze and architrave. However, depending on the architectural style (Ionian, Doric, Corinthian, etc.), the structure of the entablature may differ mainly in terms of its size. For example, in Roman architecture, the entablature is usually built with a height of about 25% of that of the column.
(derived from the Greek ακανθος) and is one of the most popular decorative details used in ancient architecture. In its vision, acanthus strongly resembles the vision of the stems and leaves of the wild plant bear's foot, common in Mediterranean countries. Due to its characteristic appearance and beautiful vision, acanthus inspires a number of architects and makes them transfer it to buildings as a basic element for decoration and decoration. The popularity of acanthus as an architectural detail has been known since ancient times and dates back to the present day. The architectural application of acanthus is known in three main forms - rounded, pointed and strongly stretched. The rounded shape of the plant is typical of Roman architecture, while the stretched one is common in Gothic buildings. As for the rounded acanthus - it is often supplemented by various types of additional plants such as oak, ivy and many others. An interesting fact is that the earliest documented application of an architectural detail in the form of an acanthus is the temple of Apollo from 429 BC, located in Basa.
The architrave (epistle) (Greek: αρχηγός - "main" and Latin: trabs - "beam") is the main beam that rests on the abacus of the columns and forms the lower part of the entablature in many architectural styles. quite smooth, or be decorated with reliefs.

It is placed directly above the columns and bears the weight of the frieze and the cornice above it (the other two parts of the entablature), as well as the roof structure. The blocks of the architrave are attached not only to the abacus, but also to each other above the columns. Sometimes it is made of two parallel blocks, only to simplify construction work.

An example of an ancient architrave in Bulgaria (III century BC) is the one in the Sveshtari tomb, whose decoration is made in the spirit of Hellenistic traditions. The entrance is framed by two rectangular columns, on which lies an architrave with a relief frieze of bukranions (stylized ox heads), garlands and rosettes. In the burial chamber are erected 4 Dorian and one Corinthian, half-columns attached to the wall, which support a pure architrave, without decorations, over which a Dorian frieze with metopes and triglyphs is made. In the same chamber are skillfully placed 10 sculptures of female figures, called caryatids.

the arch is one of the most common architectural elements, both in antiquity and today. As a structure, the arch is a kind of arc, forming the contours of an opening in the wall such as a door, window and more. It is also found in individual arched decorative facilities, aiming to complement the overall architectural idea. The most famous such structures are the triumphal arches.
the arch is a kind of wall decoration in the form of a single element or a series of small, deaf arches without real openings, located next to clearly defined and perfectly outlined columns, pilasters or consoles. Arches are usually not characterized by a specific constructive function. The idea of ​​their application is usually for purely aesthetic purposes - to serve as a beautiful and spectacular decoration. The arch is used both in the interior of the buildings and on their facades. As for the external application of the arch - the detail often adheres tightly to the wall, usually as part of the cornice or directly below it. The arc can usually be in articulated or continuous form. Continuous arches form architectural belts or friezes. The arcature is found in a semicircular, horseshoe-shaped or pointed shape.
the archbutane is an element inherent in Gothic architecture. This structural detail is an external stone arch, playing the role of a smooth transition between the vault and buttress pillar (these two elements are usually very common in Gothic architecture, in the construction and design of cathedrals and are located longitudinally along the walls of buildings). The main purpose in the formation of archbutans is to reduce the main cross section of the inner columns of the building, as well as to increase the size of the window openings and the supporting distance.


(Greek: βασιλική, translated as "royal house") is an iconic type of building in a rectangular shape. Basilicas are usually made up of an odd number of naves that vary in height. It is characteristic of basilicas built of 3, 5 or more naves that each section is divided by longitudinal rows of columns / pillars, each of which has a separate roof. The accent (or central) nave is formed by a larger and more impressive roof and is illuminated by windows located at a height above the surrounding naves. The lack of windows in a similar type of building transports it to the "pseudo-basilica" type. Due to their impressive architecture and strong symbolism, the basilicas are one of the most visited tourist sites in countries such as Italy, France, as well as Canada and the United States.
the base, also known as the 'base', is the base of a massive element such as a pillar, column or pilaster, usually characterized by an accent shape, structure and relief. Characteristic of the architectural design of the base is that it most often visualizes the shape of a parallelepiped, truncated cone, cylinder or other type of element.
the balustrade is a beautiful fence of terraces, balconies, stairs, verandas and others and has both decorative and constructive function, as it acts as a railing or support. The balustrade consists of three main elements - railing (handle) and balusters. The railing is the uppermost part of the balustrade, while the balusters are the turned or cut pillars responsible for its maintenance. Balusters are often beautifully decorated in various cuttings, shapes and reliefs, which helps to complement the overall idea and suggestion of the structural element. Precisely because of its beautiful appearance, the initial application of these small pillars was mainly as a decorative element in the exterior of buildings, as well as for fencing the windows in the facade. Balustrades usually give a sense of aristocracy and radiance to the stability of the building.
this architectural term is used to refer to specific parts of buildings located overlooking a beautiful area or natural view. These are usually the second floors (almost completely open) of low-rise buildings, palaces with spacious terraces or multi-storey terrains, open galleries and even stand-alone facilities located in the center of open areas such as gazebos, higher paved terraces and more.


the veranda is a built-in or attached semi-covered area with a roof and columns. This architectural element is often used to name balconies, which in itself carries a similar meaning - areas that can be both semi-open and glazed, which usually do not have their own heating, but have lighting.


as a well-known element of theatrical art, these moving images and structures are used to recreate an authentic environment and setting. Nowadays, the decor is most often made of light and strong materials such as EPS.
as a well-known element of theatrical art, these moving images and structures are used to recreate an authentic environment and setting. Nowadays, the decor is most often made of light and strong materials such as EPS.
is a metal, plastic and in rare cases - a wooden sleeve, which has an internal thread. The dowels are used for installation in holes and holes and serve for reliable fastening of load-bearing structures by means of. The fixing itself is done by means of a screw, which is inserted into the dowel itself.


Exterior decoration
exterior decoration is usually a collective term for all architectural details and decorative elements mounted on a facade for the purpose of its decoration and spectacular vision.
EPS (expanded polystyrene foam)
Also known as Styrofoam, EPS is a lightweight material with a closed structure of tiny spherical particles filled with air. The specific composition of EPS material makes it a perfect choice in the manufacture of thermal insulation materials, as well as in the production of architectural profiles and decorations, because, contrary to its light structure (not loading the facade), EPS is strong, non-degradable, non-deformable, low vapor permeability and environmentally friendly. Adding to this the fact that styrofoam does not mold and does not succumb to aggressive weather conditions, practically means that the material has an unlimited service life.


the ziggurat is an ancient Sumerian temple, typically shaped like a massive stepped pyramid. The steps of the ziggurat are usually so large that they act as separate floors or entire terraces. In ancient architecture, the ziggurat was surrounded by pylons, and a temple was built on it. This type of Sumerian temple dates back to around 3000 BC.
Golden ratio
(Latin: section aurea) As one of the most popular concepts in mathematics, the golden ratio (also known as the "golden proportion" or "divine proportion") is an irrational number expressing the relationship of individual parts. It is characteristic of the golden section that the greater part refers to the smaller one, just as the whole refers to the larger one. The Greek letter "φ" (phi) is used to denote the golden section. The value of the golden section is approximately equal to 1.618. The manifestation of the golden section occurs not only in nature (for example - the spiral distribution of leaves of a plant), but also in man-made structures and trends such as architecture, fine arts, financial markets and others.


Interior decoration
interior decoration is the art of ennobling interior spaces in order to improve their vision and character. Particularly popular materials in interior decoration are styrofoam, fiber and some polymers. With their help, all kinds of shapes, details and decorative ornaments can be made, which can be used in homes, offices, restaurants, public spaces and others.


Ionian style
the Ionian style (also known as the Greek-Ionian), along with the Doric and Coritian, formed the three classical styles of architecture. Characteristic of the Ionic style is that the columns are placed on bases separating their bodies from the platform. The capital, on the other hand, has spiral elements at its four ends, also known as "volutes", located at a certain angle that stopped the capital itself. It is the adherence to the strict architectural specifics in question that guarantees the capital a uniform appearance, no matter from which side it is viewed. These small details make Ionian columns the more popular solution in antiquity, which is why the more familiar elements remain today.


the bell tower is a specific building, part of a complete ensemble. For the most part, the bell tower is a tall tower that rises far above the main building or temple to which it adjoins. In this way, the bell tower maintains the bells at a certain height, necessary for the propagation of the sound of their beating. There are usually many different bells in a bell tower. With their help, believers call for worship and announce specific events. Initially, the bell tower in Christian churches was an additional building to the existing church building.
the capital is a wide area of ​​a type of vertical support such as a column, semi-column, pilaster, etc., located in their upper part. The main task of the capital is to provide a horizontal support of the entablature or arch, part of the common element. The capital is a particularly popular element for classical architectural styles and often turns out to be the focal detail that catches the eye at first glance of the building.
Cornice profile
this type of architectural element is a characteristic decorative profile, both for the facade of a building and for its interior. In the facade design, depending on the place of application of the cornice, it can be of several types - plinth, window sill, window sill, wedding, mezzanine, as well as over podiums and pedestals. As for the interior application, one of the most popular details is the ceiling cornice. Its main purpose is to ensure a smooth connection between the wall and the ceiling, emphasizing the geometry of the room and providing the opportunity to install indirect lighting.
vertical support, created by three parts - base, body and capital. The column is one of the leading decorative elements in most styles of architecture. For example, classical, baroque and neo-trends can be easily recreated with its help. In the past, columns had mainly a structural function, while today, they play the role of rather decorative and decorative elements.
Keystones and accent profiles
the keystone is a wedge-shaped stone used to mark the top of arches and vaults. The architectural function of keystones in the past was mainly to ensure the constructive strengthening of the elements and their connection as a whole. Today, keystones are more commonly used as decorations in various areas of buildings and premises such as doors, gates, windows, ceilings, etc.
In addition to being a symbol of coziness and comfort, in architecture the fireplace is a common means of recreating classical and aristocratic style in one room. Very often, the fireplace is the accent detail in the space, grabbing attention at first glance over the room. Nowadays, there are a number of decorative fireplaces with beautiful shapes and decorations, which can be easily and easily attached to the wall in the hallway, living room or bedroom.
the colonnade is a long row of individual columns connected by a common roof. The colonnades can usually be seen in the iconic representative buildings of the past. The colonnades are spread both as part of buildings and as separate structures. Usually, when a colonnade is made up of many separate sections of connected columns and leads to a specific building or landmark, it is called a "portico".
the dome is an architectural detail, strongly resembling a hollow bare half of a sphere. The dome has been present in architectural history since ancient times. The architectural element finds application for the needs of the aesthetic design of large openings with masonry structures, similar to arches and arches. The dome, like the arch, is characterized by its significant load-bearing capacity and strength of construction. Properly covered, it will withstand a great deal of adverse conditions.


Linear profile
the linear profile is a horizontal decorative profile, which is usually a series of several separate details connected to each other in the form of a strip on the facade or in the interior. The main function of the linear profiles is the discrete delineation of the different levels of the building. Linear profiles are one of the most common elements in architectural design both in the interior and in the exterior.


is a living space located on the top, top floor of a building, usually in the attic space. The attic is also known as the attic room and usually has a sloping roof. The attic windows are shaped like a dormer or a cigarette case. With good design, the attic is an ideal office space, relaxation room or additional extension of living space.
this term is used to denote small openings built in medieval towers and castles. The opening is located in a protruding railing, which is located between the individual brackets of the teeth that form the building. The idea of ​​the machine gun is to play the role of a convenient means of protecting the castle, suitable for throwing stones or shooting at the attackers at the base of the wall.
(Arabic: منارة or "manara", meaning in translation - lighthouse) is a traditional tower in Islamic architecture, built as part of or next to the mosque. The high clergy use the minaret to invite the faithful to prayer. A minaret is usually made up of three main parts - the base, the pillar and the balcony. The base of the minaret is strongly dug into the ground to ensure the stability of the foundation of the tall building. The foundation is usually made of coarse gravel and supporting aggregates. The pillar, in turn, is the elongated cylindrical section, playing the role of the main building. Usually the pole can be round or polygonal and ends with a pointed tip. To ensure the strength of this type of tall structures, the stairs in the minaret are located in the interior and counterclockwise. The third part of the minaret, namely the balcony, is the area surrounding the top of the staircase. This overhanging structure is usually lavish and decorated with various decorative materials such as bricks, tiles, as well as arches, cornices and quotations from the Qur'an.
the mutule (or mutula), in classical architecture, is a thin stone prismatic plate, usually with a slight slope, which is placed directly under the cornice. This is a particularly common practice in the design of cornices in the Doric style, which implies a harmonious integration into the overall concept. For the most part, the mutules under construction are cantilevered below the lower sloping surface of the hanging cornice. A common practice in architectural design is to place a long series of guti under the mutula (usually arranged in three rows with six guti on each mutula). The first mutules were placed in the 6th century BC.
this term means one or more intermediate floors that are open to the floors in the building below. The mezzanine is usually not counted as a separate floor and is not taken into account when calculating the total area of ​​the building. According to the International Building Code, a mezzanine is considered to be any area that meets the above conditions, which has a minimum of 30% of the area of ​​the lower floor. There can usually be more than one mezzanine in a room. The mezzanine is widely used in modern, contemporary architecture, placing the main emphasis on space and light in a room.


this type of architectural element expresses a specially formed recess in the wall of the building, designed to decorate the room with a vase, statue or other accent item. Niches are a particularly popular tool for easily creating a separate corner of the room, where you need to give a different atmosphere. Niches are common in houses, hotels, public and commercial buildings, as well as religious facilities.


is a decorative detail used to enrich an existing interior with an additional element. The ornaments are usually chosen according to the general architectural style of the room and can vary - from minimalist to classic and abstract. Architects and interior designers often use ornaments when they want to emphasize the unique style of a room and give it a personal character. This is often done by combining several ornaments and performing complex shapes.


is a traditional small Christian temple or place of worship. The chapel usually accompanies a larger spiritual or public building such as a church, college, hospital, cemetery, prison, etc. However, in many cases (mainly in small villages and remote settlements), the chapel also exists as a separate building. Usually, Eastern Orthodox chapels are much smaller than Catholic ones. What they have in common, however, is that the chapel serves as a separate place of prayer for the faithful, in which there is rarely a regular priest.
the pagoda is a Buddhist building with a religious and cult character. By itself, the pagoda is a multi-storey tower. It is characterized by its special architecture, which features detailed oval eaves, which are curved around the main building and surround the individual floors. The first pagodas appeared in Nepal and then spread rapidly throughout East and Central Asia. In some parts of Asia, the pagoda is also known as the "Buddhist chair".
is a wooden or metal fence (also known as a "pole"). Palisades usually differ in height and size. The purpose of the palisade is to serve as a protective facility, protecting indoor areas and buildings from external attacks.
(from Italian pergola) is a separate garden element, usually a simple structure in the form of an arch with a frame. The pergola is usually completely or partially covered by plants (mainly creeping or climbing). The pergola is made of side columns and crossbeams. Unlike the traditional gazebo, however, the pergola does not have its own walls and roof. Typically, a pergola can be designed as a freestanding, as well as attached to a separate outbuilding or covering an entire alley. The main idea of ​​the pergola is to help create a cozy and shady rest area.
Rustication strips and rusticated profile
this type of profiles are very common in facades, whose ideological vision implies an authentic, rustic look. With their help you can easily and effectively recreate the beauty of traditional rustic canals in one facade. Profiles with rustic channels are integrated between the individual thermal insulation boards and are integrated with its reinforcement. This helps to achieve a beautiful and sustainable, over time, vision.
(from Greek: πυραμίς) is a pyramid-shaped building whose surfaces (sides) resemble triangles, whose upper vertices converge at one common point (the top of the pyramid). The bases of the pyramids are basically triangular or quadrangular and in some cases can be polygonal. In architecture and ancient history, the most common are the pyramids with square bases.
is a column with a purely decorative purpose. The semi-column is usually built halfway into the wall and serves as an additional decoration of the supporting pillars of the building. The semi-column is one of the most popular architectural details used in the design of individual portals, pavilions and rotundas and complementing the overall architectural idea of ​​the building.
the pilaster is a flat narrow indentation from a wall, which is usually square in shape and located vertically. This popular architectural element is formed in the form of a semicolumn, most often having a rectangular section. The pilaster is made up of three parts, completely identical to those of the column - base, body and capital. The entire length of the pilaster is subordinated to the plane of the wall and plays the role of an effective division of the individual areas of a facade.
this decorative element contributes to the spectacular three-dimensional vision of a facade. While in the past the supports played an important strengthening and supporting role, their application today, in modern architecture, is rather decorative - as a key element, emphasizing the general idea and unique vision of a building.
Window sills
this type of profiles are stand-alone elements, especially popular for the needs of exterior decoration. Decorative elements are mounted at the base of the window opening or directly under the cement sill. They help to add an individual touch to the look of a given facade and effectively improve the areas around the windows.
Railings and hats
railings are architectural elements in the form of walls with openings or a completely solid surface, located as fences around terraces, balconies, staircases, coastal streets and others. Railings and hats are often used for purely decorative purposes - as a basis for decorative statues, vases and other accents.
It is used to denote polyurethane insulation, whose main application in the construction sector is in thermal insulation systems for walls and roofs. The application of PU insulation in housing construction leads to significant energy savings, as well as to provide an active barrier against moisture. Compared to other traditional thermal insulation materials, PU insulation is particularly easy and quick to apply.
this type of decorative elements are characterized by their particularly high mechanical strength. They are used in the areas between the walls and the floor, where they guarantee the effective and aesthetically pleasing concealment of the joint between the two planes. Floor skirting boards are made of materials with enviable strength and perfectly precise contours. In this way, the minimalist and beautiful vision is guaranteed, as well as the long-term operational reliability. Floor skirting boards are suitable for rooms of all types in both residential and public buildings.


Door And Window Frames
this type of decorative profiles are made in various sizes and shapes and are used in the corners of window and door openings. With the help of frame profiles, architects and interior designers are able to ensure the skillful emphasis on the overall idea and the characteristic vision of the building.
Power socket
the rosette is a decorative decoration for the ceiling. This type of decorative elements are produced both colorless and decorated in different tones for projects aimed at emphasizing the lighting fixtures on the ceiling or individual areas of it. Rosettes can usually vary in size, design and style, which guarantees unlimited possibilities for the layout of the premises.


Known as one of the most popular types of exterior cladding in the West, siding is an extremely accurate and effective imitation of a wooden facade. Nowadays, siding exists in many different variants, one of the most popular being styrofoam siding. EPS siding offers a number of advantages over traditional wood paneling - from the lighter structure, through the many options in colors and shapes, to the options for sections and long-term reliability.
Stained glass
Also known as "stained glass", stained glass windows are detailed and particularly influential color drawings on glass. Stained glass windows can be seen in some of the most iconic buildings in the world - mainly in cathedrals and spiritual centers. Stained glass is a mix between decorative and fine arts, in which colored pieces of glass are used, arranged in different sequences in order to form a mosaic visualizing different figures.


is a cylindrical structure that strengthens the dome or dome of the building. The tambour, also known as the tympanum, ensures a smooth transition between the dome and the trumpets of the buildings and can be cut through lighting openings or shaped with blank walls. The tambourine is especially common in church architecture and in particular in Orthodox churches. During the Renaissance, the vestibule was established as a mass element and an unchanging architectural detail in the construction of temples.


is a separate separate real estate with a small village-type settlement. The manor was a particularly popular way of demarcating habitable areas during the Russian Empire. This type of structure is a collection of different residential buildings, the main of which belongs to the richest family (usually they are the owners of the whole estate), while the overall whole is complemented by the adjacent farm, park and religious buildings.


the facade represents the exterior of a building. Exterior walls have usually been the subject of the greatest interest in ancient architecture, as they are the main element that carries the spirit of a building - a tradition that continues to this day. Nowadays, facade design has developed dramatically, and one of the most popular elements for the renovation and complete transformation of the exterior of buildings are facade profiles and decorative elements.
also known as a fountain, a fountain is a structure in which water springs from a central location, then fills surrounding areas (usually a pool or trough) and drains away. Since ancient times, fountains have been built from a number of different materials such as glass, stone, metal, ceramics and more. The design of fountains often relies on the spectacular movement of water, ending with a waterfall. For larger fountains, architects also rely on the addition of sculptures or decorative ornaments.
these are key elements in the load-bearing structure of a building or facility. Foundations usually play the role of a core, transmitting the effects of the structure on the earth's surface. In modern architecture, foundations also have additional functions such as vibration absorption due to seismic impacts. Today, foundations are most often built from a mix of materials, the most popular of which is reinforced concrete. According to this, the depth to which they reach the foundations are of two main types - deep and flat. As for the classification of foundations according to their shape, they can be strip, grill, single or foundation slabs.
the pediment is a nodal architectural detail, crowning a horizontal element such as an entablature supported by a colonnade, etc. The pediment is most often triangular in shape and in some cases arcuate. In architecture, a particularly popular practice is to frame the top of the gable with a cornice. The niche (the middle part of a pediment), also known as the "tympanum", is usually filled with various relief compositions or decorative ornaments.
Facade profiles from EPS
this dip decorative facade elements are made of expanded polystyrene, which is typically particularly high density. To ensure their long-term operational reliability, EPS facade profiles are protected with a finishing layer of a special cement-based polymer coating. In this way, EPS facade profiles become resistant to aging and severe weather conditions, which protects them for a long time and preserves their natural and aesthetically pleasing appearance.


it is used to denote the material from which most of the decorative elements are made today. Fiber is a material with a closed structure in which there are many small spherical particles filled with air. This significantly reduces the weight of the XPS and gives it enviable thermal insulation properties. Other positives of the material are the significant strength and resistance to deformation, low vapor permeability, non-degradability and environmental friendliness.
is a special type of polymer, characterized by its extreme strength and particularly high density. Thanks to this, the profiles made of HDPS are not damaged and remain resistant to strong mechanical loads and pressure for a long period of time. This makes them a perfect solution for use on facades exposed to severe external influences, as well as in heavily loaded public spaces, where the profiles are subject to constant pressure and friction.


The citadel
the citadel is a massive building designed for internal fortification. It is usually located in the center of a larger fortress system. In the past, the citadel was home to the ruling and iconic figures of the settlement, which is why it was additionally protected by second or even third rows of fortress walls.


it is one of the most popular types of laminated wood worldwide. Popular not only in construction but also in a number of other sectors such as the production of furniture or packaging materials, plywood allows multiple use while maintaining its reliability for a long time. Characteristic of this type of material is its high resistance to shrinkage and expansion, cracking, bending, loading and more. The production of plywood usually requires the combination of several individual sheets of wood, rotated across each other and glued with melanin or phenolic adhesives. It is for this reason that bending plywood is such a difficult task.


Corner stones
this type of decorative elements are rectangular panels designed for use in the corners or niches of facades. Their main purpose is to emphasize the connection of the individual planes of the building and to give the corners a beautiful and distinctive look. Corner stones usually imitate stone slabs, giving the building a feeling of massiveness and stability.

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